17th June 2020
Question 1: Please explain Citta. I also request you to please explain about Antahakarana, Smriti Patala. What is their location and what is their function? (Shyama Gopal Prabhu, ISKCON Noida)
Gurudev Uvaca: This question seems to be short in words, but the answer to this means reading all the Vedas and Scriptures. Everything will be covered. Even I don’t know the complete and specific answer to this, but whatever I have understood I will explain.
Citta is related to cetana. There are two things. Nature is material or the root cause. We can say that cetana belongs to the jiva. We get to know about the presence of the jiva by his cetana. All the activities performed by the jiva is because of cetana’s presence. Citta is consciousness. It is Bhavana. The same Bhavana or cetana gets contaminated in this world and makes one’s life miserable by engaging in the material world.
mach-chittā mad-gata-prāṇā bodhayantaḥ parasparam
kathayantaśh cha māṁ nityaṁ tuṣhyanti cha ramanti cha
With their minds fixed on me and their lives surrendered to me, my devotees remain ever contented in me. They derive great satisfaction and bliss in enlightening one another about me, and conversing about my glories. [B.G 10.9]
The Lord asked us to engage our cetana or consciousness in Him rather than involving it in Maya.
ānandāmbudhi-vardhanaḿ prati-padaḿ pūrṇāmṛtāsvādanaḿ
sarvātma-snapanaḿ paraḿ vijayate śrī-kṛṣṇa-sańkīrtanam
Glory to the sri-krsna-sankirtana, which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of repeated birth and death. This sankirtana movement is the prime benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste the nectar for which we are always anxious. [Sri Siksastakam]
Our consciousness gets contaminated with goodness, passion and ignorance. Our cetana’s nature describes whether we are in the mode of goodness, passion or ignorance. Cetana’s thoughts and deeds leads us to these three different modes. Therefore the Lord asks us to fix our minds on Him. (Mach-chitta)
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has said ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanaḿ. He has asked us to clean the mirror of our consciousness. Then comes smriti patala.
man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣhyasi yuktvaivam ātmānaṁ mat-parāyaṇaḥ
Always think of Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and offer obeisance to Me. Having dedicated your mind and body to Me, you will certainly come to Me. [BG 9.34]
Then comes antahakarana, smriti patala. In Antahakaran there is mind, body and ego (aham). ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanaḿ. The mirror of our consciousness is cleansed. by chanting,
Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna
Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare
Hare Rama, Hare Rama
Rama Rama, Hare Hare
When our consciousness gets cleansed by chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra then by remembering the Lord which means remembering His form which includes His name, form, Hari katha, Vaisnava songs etc. then we will get to meet God. He will visit us. Thinking and seeing are connected. What is the location? It’s very subtle. The soul is present in each and every part of our body. You cannot feel it in your hair, but it should be present there also. In an ant’s body the soul will be present all over the body of that ant. If the soul is there in the elephant’s body then the consciousness is filled all over the body of the elephant. The size of the soul doesn’t depends upon the size of the body. The soul can take any form. The size for the soul remains the same.
mahatmanas tu mam partha daivim prakrtim asritah
bhajanty ananya-manaso jnatva bhutadim avyayam
O son of Prtha, those who are not deluded, the great souls, are under the protection of the divine nature. They are fully engaged in devotional service because they know Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, original and inexhaustible. [BG 9.13]
Antahakarana or cetana is connected with the soul. Mind, cetana, bhavana can be material. Aham or ego is also an element. Lord says our body is made up of 8 elements.
bhūmir-āpo ’nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva cha
ahankāra itīyaṁ me bhinnā prakṛitir aṣhṭadhā
Earth, water, fire, air, space, mind, intellect, and ego—these are eight components of my material energy. [BG 7.4]
There are 8 elements. Some say 5 great elements. When elements gets subtle then from that consciousness is formed.So false ego (aham mamayti), mind, intelligence are all material. They are with the soul which forms consciousness. Where is the soul present? Though it is in the body, but the proper place is in the heart.
sarvasya chāhaṁ hṛidi sanniviṣhṭo
mattaḥ smṛitir jñānam apohanaṁ cha
vedaiśh cha sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedānta-kṛid veda-vid eva chāham
I am seated in the hearts of all living beings, and from Me come memory, knowledge, as well as forgetfulness. I alone am to be known by all the Vedas, am the author of the Vedānt, and the knower of the meaning of the Vedas. [BG 15.15]
The energy or consciousness of soul spreads all over the body just like the light of a bulb spreads all over the room. This comes in discussion about self discovery. All this is mentioned in Discover Yourself.
dehas tu sarva-saṅghāto
jagat tasthur iti dvidhā
atraiva mṛgyaḥ puruṣo
neti netīty atat tyajan
There are two kinds of bodies for every individual soul — a gross body made of five gross elements and a subtle body made of three subtle elements. Within these bodies, however, is the spirit soul. One must find the soul by analysis, saying, “This is not it. This is not it.” Thus one must separate spirit from matter. [SB 7.7.23]
We say I’m not this mind, even I’m not this subtle body, I’m not false ego. Then who are you?
‘radha-krishna’ bol bol bolo re sobai
(ei) sikha diya, sab nadiya
phirche nece’ gaura-nitai
Chant, chant “Radha-Krishna!” Everyone chant! When Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda came dancing through Nadia, They gave these teachings: Chant, chant “Radha-Krishna!” Everyone chant!
Then we conclude that we are servants of the Lord.
jivera ‘svarupa’ haya –
krishnera ‘nitya-dasa’ krishnera ‘tatastha sakti’ ‘bhedabheda-prakasa’
The jiva’s constitutional nature is to be an eternal servant of Sri Krishna. The jiva is the marginal potency of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord. [CC Madhya-lila, 20.108]
jivera ‘svarupa’ haya –
krishnera ‘nitya-dasa’ krishnera ‘tatastha sakti’ ‘bhedabheda-prakasa’
“The jiva’s constitutional nature is to be an eternal servant of Sri Krishna. The jiva is the marginal potency of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord.” [CC Madhya-lila, 20.108]
Shyama Gopal Prabhu, I can say this is the answer.
Question 2: We were in Vaikuntha or Goloka? (Sevya Radha Mataji)
Gurudev Uvaca: She wants to know whether we were in Vaikuntha. Yes, we were in Vaikuntha and we are fallen souls now. She wants to know from where we have fallen down. Were we in Brahma or Maha-Vishnu? Fall of the Jiva. This topic is controversial and inconceivable. Mataji is asking as there are no modes in Vaikuntha or Goloka then how come we have fallen down? This is a big question in front of the world and Vaisnavas. How the jiva fell down? How anger or jealousy arose in the jiva? From so many years this topic is being discussed in ISKCON. ISKCON GBC took a stand based on Srila Prabhupada’s thoughts, conversations and has published a paper on the fall of the jiva. Mataji, you can read this paper. In fact , we all should read this so that we can understand the stand of our acaryas as they also had different opinions on this topic. Jiva Goswami has expressed some different thoughts on this.
The jiva is a fragment of the Lord. Lord is abhigya and Swaraat or swatantra. The jiva also has minute independence and can feel it. The Lord has full control on everyone. The jiva is small and that is why it has little independence. When the jiva desires to have sense gratification then the jiva falls down. Even we have taken benefit of the independence that is why we are here.
Krsna bhuliya jiva bhoga vancha kare nikata aste maya taare jhapatiya dhare’
The moment soul desires not to serve the Lord maya immediately grabs him and casts him into material existence.
bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśhvaram
suhṛidaṁ sarva-bhūtānāṁ jñātvā māṁ śhāntim ṛichchhati
Having realized Me as the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all the worlds and the selfless Friend of all living beings, My devotee attains peace. [BG 5.29]
Sometimes the jiva tries to compete with the Lord, hence he falls down. Devotees have not asked this but let me tell you this. If after going back to Godhead and if again thoughts of sense gratification come, then we will again fall down. Then why to go back? This thought also arises. But the Lord has said that those who go back will not come back. Here it is also mentioned Going Back. So what does this mean? Oh, he is going back to Pandharpur. Earlier he was here, now where can he go? This is a reference to the place where we were earlier.
na tad bhāsayate sūryo na śhaśhāṅko na pāvakaḥ
yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama
Neither the sun nor the moon, nor fire can illumine that Supreme Abode of Mine. Having gone There, one does not return to this material world again. [BG 15.6]
God has said that one who returns never goes back.(na nivartante) And whatever the Lord says is true.
Srila Prabhupada would ask this question – If a man has fallen, then will he ask from which floor he has fallen, what time he had fallen, which building it was?If someone falls in a well then his concern should be how can I get out of this well. Some wells are so deep that even the rays of the sun can’t reach there. So one should ask how can we get out this situation. Srila Prabhupada provided the answers for this. These are not the real questions. The real questions are How can we get out of here? What are the ways and procedure? Try to seek Help. If someone is asking for help then one won’t ask how we have fallen over here. Our origin is that we were created by the Lord. As per Darwin’s theory we have evolved from amoeba to monkey. He says that we are descendants of the monkey. No! We can say that we have been created by Brahma. He has created our bodies. Our mother and father gave us the body, but we are not the body. We are souls who are part of the Lord and is saccidanand. We are not born from a monkey or Brahma, nor our parents.
mamaivānśho jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
manaḥ-ṣhaṣhṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛiti-sthāni karṣhati
The embodied souls in this material world are My eternal fragmental parts. But bound by material nature, they are struggling with the six senses including the mind. [BG 15.7]
Question 3: If Brahma got enlightened with supreme knowledge in Vrindavan during Brahma Vimohan Lila then why did he forget when he went to meet the Lord in Dvaraka?(Acyuta Cetana Mataji)
Gurudev Uvaca: The main aim of Brahma Vimohan Lila was to transfer a little knowledge to Brahma so that he could have also learnt a few lessons about the Lord and get enlightened. We were explaining to you about visrambha sakhya. Do you remember the two types of Sakhya?
In vishrambha sakhya Lila the Lord was interacting with His friends. They were eating prasada without offering it to Lord as Krsna was present there. They gave it to Krsna. Considering them to be His equal Krisna was eating from others’ plate like snatching sweets from each other. They were eating each others’ remnants. The question arises what kind of God? This was the answer. The Lord was answering the question of Lord Brahma for one year. Lord showed His supremacy for one year. He proved that He is distinguished and special. Brahma understood that this child is not like other children. He is special.
eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman
nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam
The Supreme Lord is eternal and the living beings are eternal. The Supreme Lord is cognizant and the living beings are cognizant. The difference is that the Supreme Lord is supplying all the necessities of life for the many other living entities. [Katha Upanisad 2.2.13]
The Lord’s consciousness is different. (eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman). We are many, but Krsna is one who maintains all the jivas. Krsna showed this over there. In Dvaraka a different question was asked? He was asked which Brahma has come? What type of question is this? He said I am the only Brahma. The Lord didn’t orally answer him. The Lord welcomed many Brahmas from different universes and showed His power. He also enlightened Brahma with higher knowledge in Dvaraka.
Question 4: From Pancatattva to Srila Prabhupada which saktyavesh avatars are there above them?
Gurudev Uvaca: This question doesn’t seem to be specific. All acaryas are there. Pancatattvas are there. ISKCON will be there for the next 10000 years and Srila Prabhupada will always be the founder acarya. ISKCON will work according to his instructions and preachings. Pancatattvas are directors of this movement. They have given this lifestyle, mantra.
Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna
Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare
Hare Rama, Hare Rama
Rama Rama, Hare Hare
Pancatattvas are actually providing us energy.
visvambharau dvija-varau yuga-dharma palau
vande jagat-priyakaro karunavatarau
I offer my respectful obeisances unto Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu, whose arms extend down to Their knees, who have golden yellow complexions, and who in- augurated the congregational chanting of the holy names of the Lord. Their eyes resemble the petals of a lotus flower; They are the maintainers of the living entities, the best of the brahmanas, the protectors of religious principles for this age, the benefactors of the universe, and the most merciful of all incarnations. [Caitanya-Bhagavata 1.1.1]
Now the next Kalki incarnation will be there. During the starting of Kaliyuga Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared. Now we are waiting for Lord Kalki. The appearance of acaryas starting from Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Srila Prabhupada is also called incarnations of devotees. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur was also a manjari like Srila Vishwanath Chakravarti Thakur, Srila Narottam Das Thakur. Lord also takes incarnations in the same way the Lord’s devotees take incarnations. Srila Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Thakur was not a sadhana siddha, he was a Nitya siddha, but he had appeared from Godhead. As Srila Prabhupada appeared and preached, he is said to be saktyavesh avatar.
kṛṣṇa-śakti vinā nahe tāra pravartana
The fundamental religious system in the Age of Kali is the chanting of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Unless empowered by Kṛṣṇa, one cannot propagate the saṅkīrtana movement. [CC Antya 7.11]
eko aham dvitīyo nāsti |
na bhūto na bhaviṣyati ||
There was and never will be anyone like Me
Officially it is not mentioned anywhere nor has Prabhupada ever proclaimed this, but devotees say this. All the other acaryas have also been sent by God and they have been empowered by Him. Let’s stop here.
14th June 2020
Question 1: Lord Sri Ram is Maryada Purushottam. Lord Sri Krishna is Purna Purushottam. Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Prema Purushottam. Is Prema higher than rasa? Is there any specific comments on Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s place being higher than Krsna?
No, it is not higher. Rasa is prema and prema is rasa. They are just two different names. It can be Madhurya Rasa or Madhurya Prema or Sakhya Rasa or Sakhya Prema or Sakhya bhava or Sakhya bhakti. Prema is rasa.
raso vai sah rasam hy evayam labdhvanandi bhavati
“He is that rasa (ananda or bliss). One who drinks that rasa becomes full of bliss.”(Taittiriya Upaniṣad 2.7)
Krsna is rasamoya or premamoya and same with Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Is Caitanya Mahaprabhu higher or greater than Krsna?
sri-krsna-caitanya radha-krsna nahe anya
Sri Krsna Caitanya is Radha Krsna. They are not two. They are one. One is Gaura sundar and another is Shyamsundar. They are both beautiful. One is of Golden complexion and the other is blackish. Both of Them are residents of two different parts of Goloka and spend Their time there. They keep on doing Their pastimes. One is in Vrindavan and the other in Mayapur. Mayapur is also Goloka and Vrindavan is also Goloka. Vrindavan is called Madhurya Dhama and Mayapur is called Audarya Dhama. Some difference is there. Sri Krsna plays Madhurya Lila in Vrindavan. Caitanya Mahaprabhu relishes the same pastimes in the Mayapur part of Goloka.
namne gaura-tvishe namah
O most munificent incarnation! You are Krsna Himself appearing as Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. You have assumed the golden color of Srimati Radharani, and You are widely distributing pure love of Krsna. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.
Hence he becomes maha-vadanyaya.
skande avanti-khande sri-vyasoktau –
gita sugita kartavya kim anyaih sastra-vistaraih
ya svayam padma-nabhasya mukha-padmad vinihsrta
In the Skanda-purana, Srila Vyasadeva says, “Memorize and sing sweetly this Bhagavad-gita. What need is there to elaborate on other scriptures? She has descended directly from the lotus mouth of Lord Padmanabha.”[Hari-bhakti-vilasa ]
Bhagavad Gita was spoken from the mouth of the Lord. We celebrate Gita Jayanti. Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu composed the 8 slokas of Sri Siksastakam.
Lord Krsna contributed the Bhagavad-Gita which has 700 slokas. But Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu has only contributed the 8 slokas of Siksastakam. Both of them are Kalpa Avatars. We are talking about bheda-bheda tattva.They are one and different. Spiritually they are different. This doesn’t make Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu greater than Krsna. He is different. They are Kalpa avataras, but not Yuga avataras. sambhavami yuge yuge. We can say that both of Them are not an avatar. They are avatari. Krsna appears once in a day of Brahma in Dvapara and next to that Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu appears in Kalyuga. It’s not that Krsna is not merciful.
he krsna karuna-sindhu dina-bandho jagat-pate gopesa gopika-kanta radha-kanta namo ‘stu te
What kind of Lord is that who is not merciful? But Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu who is Krsna displayed His mercy and showed His mercy to the fallen souls of this Kaliyuga. In Dvapara Yuga, people are not so fallen. In Kaliyuga all become sudra. In Satyayuga brahmans were prominent and in Tretayuga Ksatriyas were prominent. In Dvapara Vaisya were a higher class.
kalau sudra sambhavah
Sudra means fallen. To deliver the fallen people of Kaliyuga Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared. Both of Them have established dharma.
paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśhāya cha duṣhkṛitām
dharma-sansthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge
To protect the righteous, to annihilate the wicked, and to reestablish the principles of dharma I appear on this earth, age after age. (BG 4.8)
What is dharma? Prabhupada says Dharma means the laws of the Lord. In Bhagavad – Gita there are laws. There are rules and regulations, as well as do’s and don’ts.The first word of Bhagavad-Gita is dharma and the last word is mama. The last word of the 18th chapter, verse 78 is mama. “Mama dharma” means “the dharma which I have given.” Krsna gave dharma and Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu established Harinama Sankirtana.
The dharma of Kaliyuga is harinama sankirtana and Caitanya Mahaprabhu established it. It has been proven from His bhava and thoughts that Caitanya Mahaprabhu is thinking about the deliverance of the people of Kaliyuga. Hence He says…
pṛthivīte āche yata nagarādi grāma
sarvatra pracāra haibe mora nāma
“In every town and village, the chanting of My name will be heard.”(CC Madhya Lila 25.264)
By saying this his maha-vadanyata is proved.
namne gaura-tvishe namah
In the pranam mantra of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, we address Him as mahavadanyaya. We offer obeisances to Krsna whose name is Krsna Caitanya. You can think about this. I said a few things on this question. I said he is not higher, but different. Just like Srila Prabhupada said that there is no such thing as superior or inferior between man and woman, but they’re different. In the same way, Sri Krsna and Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu are not higher and lower, but they are different. This acintya-bheda-bheda tattva is good and it applies in many instances. In the jiva and the Lord also there is bheda-bheda. You can think about this. More discussion could have taken place but you can think about how Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is different. Think more and harder. This is your homework. This question-answer session is happening like a lecture. I heard that Bhakti Caitanya Swami Maharaja was doing a Question & Answer session and in half an hour he answered 20 questions.
Question 2: Can we get information about the 4 sampradayas?
Gurudev Uvaca: One time we have given this information about the 4 sampradayas. You can get more information. Purushottam Swami Maharaja has given a seminar in Vrindavan and has written a book on it. You can get that book. If you write to me then I can forward the soft copy to you.
Question 3: What is the importance of the 4 sampradayas?
Gurudev Uvaca: They are so important.
māyā-mugdha jīvera nāhi svataḥ kṛṣṇa-jñāna
jīvere kṛpāya kailā kṛṣṇa veda-purāṇa
“The conditioned soul cannot revive his Kṛṣṇa consciousness by his own effort. But out of causeless mercy, Lord Kṛṣṇa compiled the Vedic literature and its supplements, the Purāṇas.[ CC Madhya 20.122]
To free the conditioned jivas from Maya, this world has been created. When the jiva become bahir mukha and tries to enjoy, then he gets the facility so that he can become bhogi. This is one purpose for which the world has been created. Another purpose is to free the jivas by making them devotees, making them sanmukh from vimukh. For that the Lord created scriptures. For teaching scriptures, teachers are needed. The Lord created these 4 sampradayas. The 4 acaryas of these sampradayas become the teachers.
acaryavan purusho veda – The person will become wise and learned when he follows in the footsteps of the acarya. These 4 sampradayas are given by the Lord which is called the school of thought.
sampradaya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah
In Padma Purana, it is said that we have to learn within the sampradaya. Without sampradaya, the mantra will be viphala.
imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ
sa kāleneha mahatā
yogo naṣṭaḥ parantapa
This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in course of time the succession was broken, and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost.[ BG 4.2]
Sampradaya is very important.This arrangement has been made by the Lord and we need to take full advantage of this. There are four sampradayas. By Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s arrangement, another sampradaya was created as it was an emergency. Gaudiya Parampara ki Jay.
anarpita-carīṁ cirāt karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam
sadā hṛdaya-kandare sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandanaḥ
There were many previous incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but none were so generous, kind and magnanimous as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, for He distributed the most confidential aspect of devotional service, namely, the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī Prabhupāda desires that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu live perpetually in the hearts of all devotees, for thus they can understand and relish the loving affairs of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa. [Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī ]
Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared to give the topmost rasa which was not given earlier within these 4 sampradayas. Caitanya Mahaprabhu wanted to give this Prema Rasa. What kind of Prema? One is mixed with Aiswarya and another is Vishrambha. So to give vishrambha madhurya sakhya, vatsalya this sampradaya was established by Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Question 4: Please explain in detail about the Grantha Bhagavat?
Gurudev Uvaca: For that we have to do a Bhagavata Katha, but in that also the whole Katha won’t cover it. For this, we need to read Srimad Bhagavatam daily. Then you will become a Gaudiya Vaisnava. Caitanya Mahaprabhu also heard Bhagavatam. You are asking me detailS. Read the books of Bhagavatam. You also want to know about the person Bhagavat and the 12 Mahajans.
There are two types of Bhagavat, one is grantha Bhagavat and another is person Bhagavat. Srila Prabhupada says that Grantha Bhagavat is the Lord Himself and the person Bhagavat is the bhakta, a high-class devotee. The person Bhagavat always thinks about the Lord. He is always Krishna consciousness. The person Bhagavat is one who has understood the essence of Bhagavatam. Srila Prabhupada is also a Bhagavat. There are 12 Maha-bhagvatas.
vayambhur naradah sambhuh
kumarah kapilo manuh
prahlado janako bhismo
balir vaiyasakir vayam
Yamaraja said that the Lord Himself gives dharma.
dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītaṁ
na vai vidur ṛṣayo nāpi devāḥ
na siddha-mukhyā asurā manuṣyāḥ
kuto nu vidyādhara-cāraṇādayaḥ
Real religious principles are enacted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although fully situated in the mode of goodness, even the great ṛṣis who occupy the topmost planets cannot ascertain the real religious principles, nor can the demigods or the leaders of Siddhaloka, to say nothing of the asuras, ordinary human beings, Vidyādharas and Cāraṇas.[ SB 6.3.19]
One who understands dharma given in form of Gita and Bhagavatam is Vyakti [Person] Bhagavat. By serving both, we can serve Bhagavatam.
8th June 2020
Question1: Please guide me as my mind is very disturbed sometimes, so it creates a fear of going away from Krsna. What should I do?
This question is being asked by one devotee, but this question comes to everybody’s mind. We should not think that this question is not mine so I should not listen to the answer. This answer is for everybody. The question is, sometimes my mind gets disturbed. I was thinking you are so fortunate that only sometimes your mind gets disturbed, not always. And when your mind is disturbed you think, let’s go away from the Lord. So what should you do?
Then a question can be asked, where is the place where you go to and the Lord does not exist there? I want to go away from the Lord. Or I want to go away from chanting. Where is such a place? Where will you go where the Lord is not presesnt? Are you disturbed because you are going away from the Lord?
kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga
pāsate māyā tare japatīyā
Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, “Oh jiva as you went away from Me with desire to enjoy and now Maya has attacked you. I was here as Lord Krsna’s form and there also I am but in which form? In the form of Maya. So you can’t go away from Me. [Prema-vivarta]
We pray to that Lord that when my soul leaves the body may I take the name of Govind or chant Hare Krsna. Hare krsna nama leke tab prana tan se nikale. But those who don’t desire this and want to go away from Krsna, Govinda , will the Lord leave them alone? The Lord will go there also. In which form?
mrtyuh sarva-haras caham
udbhavas ca bhavisyatam
kirtih srir vak ca narinam
smrtir medha dhrtih ksama
I am all-devouring death, and I am the generator of all things yet to be. Among women I am fame, fortune, speech, memory, intelligence, faithfulness and patience.[BG 10.34]
mrtyuh sarva-haras caham, we can’t go away from the Lord. In manifest or un-manifest form the Lord is present everywhere. Just like the government is everywhere. When we go out on the roads we have to follow traffic rules. In business there are income tax laws and we are being troubled by these laws. We don’t want to follow them. If we break the laws of the land then where will we go? We will be put into jail. The government is there also. Government is in the jail and also outside the jail. Then where will you go? You can’t go away from the government. It is everywhere.
Srila Prabhupada would give an example of a kitten of a cat and a mouse. The baby keeps calling his mother “Meow! Meow!Mummy! Mummy! Help! Help!Where are you?” Then the mummy cat comes and how does she hold her baby? She catches hold of its neck and carries him. The kitten does not know where to go. It is too young. It can’t walk. It’s helpless. The kitten just calls its mother by saying meow, meow. The mother comes and holds its neck with her teeth and takes it away. Then sometimes the same cat sees a mouse and sits at the opening of the hole from where the mouse keeps going in and out. She sits there waiting to catch the mouse. As the mouse comes out, she catches it. The cat is the same. When she holds her kitten by its neck the kitten is very comfortable, “Oh mummy cat, you can hold me as much as you want. You are welcome.” But what will be the condition of the mouse in the mouth of the cat? Between the two, who is peaceful and who is not peaceful? The mouse is disturbed and the kitten is very peaceful. Srila Prabhupada explains further, the Lord holds us directly or we get direct association of the Lord or in the form of Maya. When Maya catches us then we are in distress and if we get the association of the Lord, we will be peaceful.
kṛṣṇa-bhakta—niṣkāma, ataeva ‘śānta’
The word śānta means completely peaceful. Unless all one’s desires are fulfilled, one cannot be peaceful. Everyone is trying to fulfill his aspirations and desires, be they material or spiritual. Those in the material world are aśānta (without peace) because they have so many desires to fulfill.[CC Madhya 19.149]
We can’t go away from the Lord. Stay near the Lord. If you go away from the Lord, Maya will catch you, which is also a form of the Lord.
jāhāra nikaṭe gele pāpa dūre jāya
Where does anyone find such a merciful personality by whose mere audience all sins go far away?
We should give up the thought of going away from Visnu and devotees of Visnu. I was also thinking where is your counsellor? When your mind is disturbed go to your counsellor or senior devotees. Stay in the association of devotees and do guhyam ākhyāti pṛcchati which is the symptom of love. Then you will be free from all the distress and disturbances.
Question 2: On which principle bhava is our Gaudiya parampara is based and do we need to follow the same bhava for developing our relationship with Radha and Krsna?
nāhaṁ vipro na ca nara-patir nāpi vaiśyo na śūdro
nāhaṁ varṇī na ca gṛha-patir no vanastho yatir vā
gopī-bhartuḥ pada-kamalayor dāsa-dāsānudāsaḥ
I am not a brāhmaṇa, I am not a kṣatriya, I am not a vaiśya or a śūdra. Nor am I a brahmacārī, a householder, a vānaprastha or a sannyāsī. I identify Myself only as the servant of the servant of the servant of the lotus feet of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the maintainer of the gopīs. He is like an ocean of nectar, and He is the cause of universal transcendental bliss. He is always existing with brilliance.’ [Padyāvalī ]
Caitanya Mahaprabhu has said,
ramya kacid-upasana vrajavadhu-vargena ya kalpita
The highest and most pleasing type of worship of Krishna is done by the Vraja gopis. [Caitanya-matta-manjusa by Srinath Chakravarti.]
Make the bhava of the Gopis your ideals. Make the Gopis your hero, heroin. Follow them, but do not imitate them. Yesterday I was listening to Prabhupada who was saying, anusaran and anukaran. Follow in the footsteps and no imitation. We should follow in the footsteps of the gopis, but not imitate them.
Hare Krsna Hare Krsna
Krsna Krsna Hare Hare
Hare Rama Hare Rama
Rama Rama Hare Hare
Chanting is a process to establish our relationship with Radha and Krsna. It’s a process to establish a relationship and that’s Sambandha. Then there is Abhidheya so we need to settle. Then Prayojana is prema. At the time of chanting remember Radha and Her lotus feet or offer a special prayer at Her lotus feet.
karuṇāḿ kuru mayi karuṇā-bharite
O You who are filled with compassion! O You whose divine characteristics are described by the great sages Sanaka and Sanatana! O Radha, please be merciful to me!
This is also a prayer, “Oh Radhe, please bestow the bhava to me like that which You have for the Lord, not that much, but at least a little. Oh Radhe please bestow us with the bhava like the Gopis have for the Lord.”
yam yam vapi smaran bhavam
tyajaty ante kalevaram
tam tam evaiti kaunteya
Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, that state he will attain without fail.[BG 8.6]
Throughout our life we practice devotional service with the goal of achieving the bhakti bhava like the gopis. Then if we practice this lifelong then at the end of our life we will remember that bhava as we leave this body. According to that bhava we will get either no birth or another birth. Our next birth depends upon our thoughts at the end of our life. The Lord says, yam yam vapi smaran bhavam, whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, that state he will attain without fail.
This bhakti bhava, Radha bhava, gopi bhava is a complete and developed bhava which includes all others bhava. Dasya bhava, sakhya bhava, vatsalya bhava and gopibhava is there. In the dialogue of Ramananda Raya and Caitanya Mahaprabhu the topmost quality of conjugal love is explained.
In the air there are the qualities of sound and touch. In fire, there are three qualities — sound, touch and form. In water there are four qualities — sound, touch, form and taste, raso ‘ham apsu kaunteya.
Then in the earth there are all five qualities — sound, touch, form, taste and also smell, puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛithivyāṁ cha. Now, one can see that the quality of the sky is in all — namely in air, fire, water and earth. In earth we can find all the qualities of the material nature. The same can be applied to the rasa known as mādhurya-rasa, or conjugal love. In conjugal love there are the qualities of neutrality, servitorship, fraternity and parental affection, as well as those of conjugal love itself.
Conjugal love is complete and full developed. According to Caitanya Mahaprabhu with this bhava we become Gaudiya Vaisnava. Gopi bhava or conjugal love is the specialty and excellence of Gaudiya Vaisnavism. If we do not have gopi bhava, then we will become like some other sampraydaya.
Question 3: If Madhavites does not accept Radha or gopi and their philosophy is also different from our philosophy, then how we are connected with them?
Unity in diversity is there or acintya-bheda-bheda is also there. Some things are the same and some things are different. All the sampradayas are one. We are all united on the basis of Visnu. We all believe in Visnu.
Vasudevam sarvam iti
Somebody’s Visnu is Krnsa, somebody’s Visnu is Lord Rama, somebody’s Visnu is Narasimha. All are Visnu, Visnu is common. Then main thing is that all the sampradayas and we, Gaudiya Vaisnavas all reject Advaitvada.
Caitanya Mahaprabhu says,
“Mayavada bhasya sunile haya sarva nasa.”
“One who hears the commentaries of the Mayavadis, will ruin his spiritual life.”
But from where did we get this understanding? It came from Madhavacarya. He shows two fingers, jiva and the Lord. They are not one. Then only is devotional life possible. In all 4 sampradayas and if we call ours the 5th, devotional service is of prime importance.
In Mayavada and Advaitvada there is no devotion, zero devotion. Who do they serve? Aham brahmasmi. If you are Brahman then that is whom you serve.
We get linked up with all these sampradayas by some similar philosophies. We all are one, also we are different in some way. That’s why we all are related.
Question 4: Kindly explain how the name Radhadesh and Damodhardesh came?
In Belgium ISKCON has one project, under Radha Gopinath temple. It’s a big 40 acre project. It’s a historical place. When ISKCON purchased it, devotees named it Radhadesa. In Caitanya-caritamrta there is mention of Radhadesh. Nityananda Prabhu appeared in Radhadesh. Part of Bengal where the River Ganga does not flow is called Rāḍhadeśa. Devotees saw Radhadesa. The spelling is the same dha is dhaa and dha is also ddha. They liked the name, “Let’s name our project as Radhadesa.” There was mistake in the pronunciation.
Below one dha there is a dot in diacritics, ḍha and below another dha the dot is not there. They did not see the dot. There was a mistake in pronunciation, but name is nice. Before this event there was no such name to any country in the world. But devotees read it as Radhadesa and named that project Radhadesa. Since then Radhadesa is existing, a big project of ISKCON is there in Belgium.
Not only Damodhardesa but many desas are there Avataridesa, Shyamdesa, Balaramadesa. You know Middle East – Dubai, Sharjah, Abu dhabi. The names of these countries are converted. It’s possible that it is the idea of Jayapataka Maharaja. He is the GBC, Governing Body Commissioner of these countries and he likes to keep names. After discussing with the local devotees, they decided why call Dubai, Dubai?We will call it Damodhardesa as it starts with D. Abhudhabi – Avataridesa, Sharjah – Shyamdesa. Like we give a name to disciples starting with the first letter of their name, so he made these countries also his disciples and named these countries. It’s very good, because in these regions we cannot preach openly. It’s all underground. If we call Dubai Damodhardesa the people there will not understand which country these Hare Krsnas are talking about. They will not think much and our movement and preaching mission will go on and on.
Question 5: There are other mellows higher than santa rasa then why was Sukadev Goswami selected to recite Srimad Bhgavatam when he was practicing Santa rasa and there were many devotees present there in that assembly?
Sukadev was Brahmavadi, Brahmavadis can become devotees. Mayavadis do not become devotees.
Mayavada Krsna Aparadhi
Mayavadis are offenders of the Lord. But Brahmavadis are favorable to Krsna. They can become devotee and Sukadev Goswami became a devotee. He was Brahmavadi in the womb. He wanted to stay there. He was peaceful there. But his mother was in distress as a baby of 16 years was still in the womb. When a baby takes birth he is how many kgs? Just 2 or 3 kgs. But Sukadev Goswami was 50 kgs. He is 16 years old so he is 50 kgs. His mother was suffering. Sukadev Goswami was the son of Vyasadev. Srila Vyasadev called Krsna from Dvaraka. In those day Krsna was in Dvaraka. He came and the baby got darsana of Krsna and was attracted to Krsna. Krsna promised the baby that if he came out he will be protected. Then this baby took birth and as he took birth,
putrena tanmaya viraha katar..
This is a prayer of Suta Goswami. He is offering obeisances at the lotus feet of Sukadev Goswami and glorifying him. Such was Sukadev Goswami. He was detached, without desire and devotion was awakened in his heart. When he went to the forest Srila Vyasadev gave him some teachings through his disciples. He directed his disciples to recite the slokas of Bhagavatam. Sukadev Goswami was able to hear the sloks where ever he was and he may come and enquire more. Vyasadev was training Sukadev Goswami though his disciples, like a counsellor. In this way he became eligible and was empowered to recite Srimad Bhagavatam.
There are two types of Bhagavats – Book Bhagavat and Person Bhagavat. So when Sukadev Goswami became a person Bhagavat at that time he recited Bhagavatam, not when he was Brahmavadi.
svayambhūr nāradaḥ śambhuḥ
kumāraḥ kapilo manuḥ
prahlādo janako bhīṣmo
balir vaiyāsakir vayam
Lord Brahma, Bhagvan Narada, Lord Śiva, the four Kumāras, Lord Kapila [the son of Devahuti], Svayambhuva Manu, Prahlada Maharaja, Janaka Maharaja, Grandfather Bhisma, Bali Maharaja, Śukadeva Gosvāmī and I myself know the real religious principle. [SB 6.3.20]
Vaiyasakir means son of Vaiyasaki, that is Srila Vyasadev.
In these 12 Mahajanas , Sukadev Goswami’s name is included. So its explained in Ajamila katha that if anybody knows Lord Krsna they are these 12 Mahajans. Sukadev Goswami is highly qualified. He has all the right to recite Srimad Bhagavatam.
7th June 2020
Question 1: Can you explain vishrambha in one word?
Vishrambha means intimacy or trust. Trust in the Lord.
Question 2: Please explain how is Santa rasa, one of the primary rasas when it does not have any seva bhava. How to understand?
There are 5 primary rasas and 7 secondary rasas. In 5 rasas, there is Santa rasa. In santa rasa there is Bhakti bhava or seva bhava, but it is not displayed. When such a devotee gets the association of devotees who are dedicated and surrendered, then his bhava will evolve and will accept full fledged dasya rasa. We explained the characteristics of a Santa rasa devotee. They are “nishthavan and anasakta” They are more elevated than devotees with secondary rasas. In reality, the Lord is a treasure mine of all mellows. He is complete of all rasas. One of them is Santa rasa. One time when 4 kumaras went to Vaikuntha then they didn’t remain silent. They became active and started to preach.They started doing “yare dekha, tare kaha ‘krsna’-upadesa”. They preached gyana and vairagya. These Santa rasa devotees become elevated devotees.
Question 3: How Ajmila went to the Namabhasa stage? As it takes anartha nivritti to go on that stage.
First, there is nama–aparadh. The person keeps on chanting. Ajamila was also chanting Narayana! Narayana which was mixed with offenses. He had not said Narayana for the first time when the Yamadutas came. Every day he called his sons many times by his name, Narayana. He chanted more than 108 times. He called them to have lunch and other activities by calling their names. In this way, he chanted Narayan. By continuously taking the name of Narayana, anartha nivritti happened and he became free from offenses.
But when Yamadutas came he called Narayan in helplessness. The Lord assumed that He is being called and then immediately he sent the Visnu Duttas and hence He was liberated from death. There are 3 stages – nama aparadh, namabhasa and suddha nama. Then for suddha nama he went to Haridwar to chant the holy names. Then he realized Abhinatva naam namino (Krsna is non different from His name). Then the same Visnu Duttas came and he proceeded to Vaikuntha.
Question 4: We are so fallen then how we can reach Vishrambha Stage?
nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-prema ‘sādhya’ kabhu naya
śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte karaye udaya
Pure love for Kṛṣṇa is eternally established in the hearts of the living entities. It is not something to be gained from another source. When the heart is purified by hearing and chanting, this love naturally awakens.[ CC Madhya 22.107]
Question 5: We understand or say both Lord Rama and Krsna are the same, but their Dhama are different. Why so?
Well, they are one and different also. Acintya Bheda bhed.
Question 6: Do we have any family relationships in Goloka with other devotees or we just love Krsna?
The question can also be asked, “Do devotees over there just love Krsna and not His devotees? Lord said that before loving Me, love the devotees. If you love Me, then love my dog. Srila Prabhupada also used to say this. Lord says” One who says one is My devotee is not My devotee”. But one who claims to be a devotee of My devotee is indeed My devotee. Here also there are so many inter-relationship. Relationships over here are not eternal. If relationships are existing over here then we should understand that relationships will be existing in Goloka too.
Question 7: What are the qualities in Radharani which are not in Krsna?
This was one of the internal reasons for the appearance of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. There are 3 reasons mentioned in Caitanya-caritamrita. Rukmini also has said this to Lord Dvarakadhish that there are somethings which I know little, but Radharani knows. Then the Lord said,”Haven’t you read Bhagavatam which mentions Me as abhigya svarat.” When Rukmini said, “You don’t know” then the Lord decided to appear as Radharani. Then He said that He will have a Radha realization. He will know what’s there extra in Radharani or bliss which She relishes because of Krsna.
Question 8: What is the relationship of Madhavacarya with Gaudiya sampradaya?
We are not just the Gaudiya Sampradaya, but we are Brahma Madhava Gaudiya Sampradaya. There is acintya bheda bheda. There are many branches which are developed of this Madhava sampradaya. They are different, but one too. Vaishnava sampradaya means worship of Visnu.
4th June 2020
In which mood or bhava should we serve the Lord?
Discussion was going on about this and we were explaining the Superexcellence of Gaudīya Vaiśnavism and various bhavas (mood) which are sānta, dāsya, sākhya, vātsalya, mādhurya. Dāsya bhava is the base. Dāsya is common in all the bhavas.
Please explain the meaning of Viśrambha.
This viśrambha is acintya, inconceivable. These emotions are not so easy, but subtle due to it’s divinity. This is related to acintya-bheda-abheda tattva. In viśrambha bhava, there is no difference between the Lord and the living entity as we are one and the same. We have an intimate relationship with the Lord. This is about the knowledge of aiśvarya śunyatā of the Lord. The Lord doesn’t display His aiśvarya (opulence,) but He displays mādhurya. He keeps His devotees near Him. He sits on the lap of Mother Yasoda, puts cowherd boys on His back or Radharani shows maan bhava. This relationship with the Lord is called Viśrambha. One is aiśvarya mishrit bhakti and another is viśrambha. The relationship of Arjuna with the Lord is aiśvarya mishrit sākhya while the relationship of the cowherd boys with the Lord is of viśrambha sākhya. In aiśvarya, there is a thought that the Lord is great and we are śudra or tiny. But in viśrambha, there is – tum kon bada log, tumi ami sama!
We will continue with the Superexcellence of Gaudīya Vaiśnavism in the next class. Today is a special day, Dahi chida festival.
500 years ago on today’s tithi at Panihati, near Kolkata on the banks of the Ganga, Nityananda Prabhu arrived. Caitanya Mahāprabhu had sent Him to West Bengal to propagate the holy name of the Lord. Nityananda Prabhu was engrossed in kirtana day and night with His associates. Then, Raghunatha Dasa came. He is yet to become Raghunath Dasa Goswami, one of six goswamis of Vrindavan. He is still a grhasta and a son of a wealthy landlord, Govardhana Dasa. Govardhana Dasa was rich and a donor. Raghunatha’s parents were asking him to stay at home and do bhakti. There was no need to take sannyāsa (renounced order). Thus, they got him married. Raghunatha Dasa didn’t want to be at home. He wanted the association of Caitanya Mahāprabhu by joining His mission to spread the holy name. When he left home, he would be brought back again. He was eager to get the association of Mahāprabhu. Thus he arrived at Panihati with a hope to get Nityananda Prabhu’s mercy.
Nityananda Prabhu was sitting on the banks of the Ganga under a huge tree with His associates. Raghunatha Dasa came over there and offered obeisances from afar. One devotee told Nityananda Prabhu about him and He called Raghunatha Dasa a thief and asked him to come near Him. Raghunatha Dasa kept sitting there with utmost humility. Nityananda Prabhu came and put His lotus feet on the head of Raghunatha Dasa. He wanted to punish him and therefore asked Raghunatha Dasa to feed dahi chida to everyone. This type of punishment was appropriate as he was the son of a big landlord who was not just a millionaire, but a billionaire.
All chida (flat rice) was brought over there from various places. Dahi and Dūd chida were to be prepared by mixing various ingredients in big utensils. Raghunatha Dasa arranged everything for the dahi chida festival. Nityananda Prabhu came there and He was surrounded by His associates in the same way Krsna and Balarama used to be surrounded by their cowherd friends on the banks of the Yamuna in Vrindavan. When the announcement was made for the dahi chida festival, everyone came. Mothers didn’t cook at home. There was no place left to sit. Some were standing on the riverbank, some were standing in the water up to their waist. Everyone was given 2 earthen pots, one of dahi chida and another of dūd chida. This pastime is described in text 44, chapter 6, Antya lila of Caitanya-caritamrita.
1st June 2020
He had heard it from somewhere that if we chant 3 crore names then we will attain the nāmābhāsa stage from the nāmaparādha stage.
It may take 30 crore names. It depends on with how much sincerity you are trying. It depends on the intensity of your practice in devotional service.
Please say something about Gaudiya Vaiśnava tilak.
By seeing the tilak, one conceives which sampradaya we belong to. If a woman is wearing bindi or kumkum then it is understood that she is sadhavā (married) and she is not vidhavā (widow). Similarly, when we wear tilak then we present that Krsna is our Lord and we are His servants. Gaudiya Vaiśnava tilak is a symbol of the Lord’s feet and the Tulasi beneath it represents the Tulasi leaf on the lotus feet of the Lord. We should wear tilak every time.
Namarupa Prabhu asked,
How has Gaudiya ‘acintya-bedha-abheda’ supremacy over other vaiśnava philosophies?
We worship Radha Krishna and they are topmost.
Whether there is any book to which we can refer to go in depth of this concept of ‘acintya-bheda-abheda tattva’?
Yes. Govinda Bhashya is the one, which is given by Gaudiya Vedanta Ācārya Baladeva Vidya Bhushan.
31st May 2020
Question 1:Krishnakumar Prabhu has asked that without serving cows we can’t enter Goloka Dham. Is it true? If yes then how can we increase it?
Gurudev : If you have heard this or read it somewhere then this is true. If you want to enter in the Lord’s pastimes as a cowherd boy then you have to practice it over here. The Lord goes for herding cows without shoes and an umbrella. If you are brahmin then sing the glories of cows. There is someone who does Bhagvat katha for 7 days in Vrindavan. If you’re a politician then you can protect cows. You can drink the cow’s milk after offering unto the Lord. Don’t drink wine. Some are preaching that you can make a burger at home by adding beef or cow’s flesh in it. These are followers of Hiranyakasipu.
Question 2: What is Gaudiya? Devotees of Vishnu are called as Vaishnavas.
Gurudev: Krishna’s devotees are called as Krashnas. Devotees of Radha are called Gaudiyas. Gauda is region. The Lord appeared and worshipped Radha. We worship that Krsna who worships Radha. In this way we become Gaudiya Vaishnavas.
Question 3 :Bhakta Sunil is asking what will happen to existing identity if we accept Gaudiya Vaishnavism?
Gurudev: Many things can be said. But in short we can say. There are 2 parts of Goloka. Vrindavan and Navadvipa. If one is more attracted by Madhurya pastimes of the Lord then one will return to Vrindavan. If one is more attracted to Gauranga Mahaprabhu then one will return to Navadvipa or Svetadvipa. Srila Prabhupad would say that we have to join dancing party of Radha Krsna. If you’re interested in both then you can be there at both places. The Lord can make such an arrangement. This confidential arrangement is also there. So that is the Superexcellence of Gaudiya Vaisnavism.
Vallabh Nimai Das: May we hear that Bhamchari class
Ayodhyapati Ram Das_Gurgaon:Is there any way that we can also attend that brahmachari class??If not to everyone, then can it be available to youth devotees?
23rd May 2020
Q3:Why Mahaprabhu use to hear Dhruva and Prahlad Caritra again and again?
Gurudev uvaca: They are special characters. We get enthusiasm and energy by listening to them. Caitanya Mahaprabhu also wants to show us that we should not directly read the rasa lila of the Lord which is in the 10th canto. We have to study, do sravanam and kirtana of the previous cantos. Prahlad caritra is there in the 7th canto and Dhruva caritra is there in the 4th canto. If we read them then we will be purified and we will be ready to study and understand the 10th canto where madhurya and gopinaya pastimes of Radha and Krsna have been explained.